Oriental Cavalcade

OrientalCavalcade1Hungarian-born Tibor Rudas arrived in Australia with his wife and brother in 1948 to perform as the acrobatic dancing team, Sugar Baba and the Rudas Twins, at Melbourne’s Tivoli theatre in Revue Continentale. They had previously performed at the Palladium in London and the Gaumont Palace in Paris. Sugar Baba danced at the Hungarian Opera in Budapest; the boys were dance students. The three fled to Turkey when war broke out and spent the war years preparing their act. In 1950 they settled in Sydney, where they opened a studio for acrobatic dancing above the Tivoli theatre with the intention of training a stable of young acrobatic dancers for the Tivoli to export in exchange for American entertainers. Tibor Rudas’ experience as a displaced person, touring entertainer and then migrant, lent his enterprise global scope and mobility. Whereas Laurie Smith and Harry Wren imported acts for theatres in Australia, Rudas built his dance studio into an export product for Asian markets. ManilaTimes19581005p18detail

In October 1958, Rudas flew eight Australian dancers to the Philippines for a month-long season at the Manila Grand Opera House. According to the Manila Times, the Rudas Dancers arrived in Manila “direct from Europe,” but they were actually from Australia and had travelled via Singapore. A troupe of Rudas dancers had passed through Singapore on route to Calcutta in April that year. They returned to appear at the Cathay Restaurant and Ocean Park Hotel in Singapore from May to June, and then transferred to the Paramount night club in Hong Kong from July to September. After appearing in Manila, Rudas announced that the troupe would tour to Japan to perform at Tokyo’s Monte Carlo Club. They were back in Singapore from December to February 1959. From May 1959, the Rudas troupe transferred to Hong Kong where they performed at the Paramount, Princess Garden and Golden Phoenix night clubs. In June 1959, the troupe had flown back to Australia to prepare for a national tour, their numbers augmented with entertainers from the night clubs of Tokyo, Hong Kong, Singapore and Manila.

Promising to deliver “the mystery of Siam, the fascination of China, the excitement of Malaya, the enchantment of India, revealed in the most provocative, the most hilarious way,” Rudas toured Oriental Cavalcade to theatres in Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Bendigo, Ballarat, Perth, Adelaide, Newcastle and Broken Hill from August 1959 to November 1960. In Brisbane over the summer holiday period, Rudas took advantage of his imported cast to present a matinee season of the pantomime Aladdin. Promotional imagery recycled the eroticised tropes of Orientalism: the cover of the programme for the Sydney season depicts two scantily-clad women in a harem scene, with Chinese dragons, Persian carpet, and exotic treasure highlighted in gold and red. However, hand-drawn sketches inside the programme depict western travellers on the streets of Tokyo or Hong Kong. In programme notes, Rudas describes Oriental Cavalcade as “an East-West theme” and a “theme and production of East Meets West.” Adelaide reviewer Colin Kerr observed “a fast-moving variety show in which East bows to Western tastes but still manages to come out on top.”

Relational structures within the performance placed an emphasis on encounter, reciprocity and exchange, sentiments prominent in the “Cold War Orientalism” of the middlebrow American imagination that Christina Klein describes. OrientalCavalcade4The stars of Oriental Cavalcade were the comedians: an Englishman, Freddie Sales; an American, Billy Rayes; and an Australian, Billy McMahon. For Lindsey Browne, reviewing the Sydney season, Sales “stole” the show. Their comedy sketches appear to have made gendered fun from encounters in post-war Asia: the three comedians opened the show in “East Meets West” with the “Oriental ‘Secretaries’ and the Tivoli Ballet,” and Freddy Sales and Billy Rayes appear with the Kawashima Dancers in “The New ‘Wing’ of Okinawa’s Teahouse of the August Moon.” In solo segments in the second half, however, the comedians appear to have presented their own material, not related to the “East-West” theme.

The eight Kawashima Dancers from Japan “brought the house down” performing their burlesque of the ballet Swan Lake, dressed as kewpie dolls with over-sized full-head masks. They also appeared on stage in chorus-line with the seven Rudas Dancers from Australia. A Melbourne critic for The Age reported that the Kawashima dancers from Japan “high-kick with Hollywood precision” and the Filipino entertainers sang “rock and roll” and “crooned love songs in bodgie clothing.” Among the Filipino acts in Oriental Cavalcade were Don Soliano (the “Elvis of Manila”), the Ricman Duo (“pocket-size sensations”), and Vic Soledad and the Blue Squire Trio, each of whom Rudas could have seen when they were performing at the Manila Grand Opera House between late 1958 and early 1959. More recognisably “Eastern” were the Chinese juggling acts by Mana Koon, and Che Chung Chong, who had performed his fire-juggling at Hong Kong’s Paramount night club during November and December 1958. By contrast, “Moonlight in India” was performed by the Duo Sylvanos, an Australian acrobatic-adagio duo who also performed in Singapore, Calcutta and Hong Kong. OrientalCavalcade2

Rudas hired publicist Betty Stewart who booked advertisers for the programme and arranged for performers from the show to appear on television to promote the Sydney season. The advertisers took advantage of the revue to cultivate Australian tastes for consuming Asian music, food and experiences on holidays. The programme for the Sydney season carries advertisements for: The Sukiyaki Room at King’s Cross, “Australia’s only Japanese restaurant;” Miss Kawashima’s favourite recipe for fried rice, cooked with Australian-grown Sunwhite rice; a recording from RCA records of “music for a Chinese dinner at home,” with Chinese recipes on the cover; and Qantas and BOAC, the two main airlines flying from Sydney to Manila, Singapore and Hong Kong. For the TCN-9 television station in Sydney, Che Chung Chong and Mana Koon performed their chop-stick balancing, egg-and-cup trick and fire-twirling acts on The Bobby Limb Show. Their televised segment segues into a performance by comedienne, Beryl Meekin, Australia’s “moonfaced mountain of mirth,” who had performed with Harry Wren’s Thanks for the Memory and returned to join Many Happy Returns after “a record-breaking tour of Japan, Manila and Hong Kong.” Meekin appears in costume as a Chinatown madame, singing the Orientalist jazz standard, “Limehouse Blues,” with six chorus girls, dressed in tabards, dancing with fans.

The juxtaposition of the two Chinese entertainers, presenting the corporeal signifiers of their national origin, with Meekin and the Australian dancers, performing as ‘Chinese’ in costume and make-up, records a transition in entertainment between the old-time theatricality of exotic artifice and the authenticity of touring artists. In television production, where close-ups and cropped shots conveyed to viewers an impression of the entertainers’ presence, smaller gestures and more intimate styles of bodily presentation were favoured over the broad brushstrokes of theatrical artifice that had been designed to convey national distinction at a distance.


A version of this account appears in Bollen, J. (2013) ‘Here from There – travel, television and touring revues: internationalism as entertainment in the 1950s and 1960s’Popular Entertainment Studies, 4/1: 64-81.

  • Tibor Rudas, AusStage, http://www.ausstage.edu.au/pages/contributor/229102, accessed 20 March 2013. Programmes for Revue Continentale, Tivoli Theatre, Melbourne, 23 August 1948, National Library of Australia. Sugar Baba and the Rudas Twins also performed in Variety Cavalcade, Tivoli Theatre, Melbourne, 5 September 1949.
  • John Brennan, “Unique school for young Sydney acrobats,” Sunday Herald, 27 August 1950, 2; van Straten, Tivoli, 182. After marrying Tibor, Sugar Baba was known as Anna Rudas, dance teacher and choreographer.
  • Tibor Rudas signalled his intention to apply for naturalisation under the Nationality and Citizenship Act in 1953 in an advertisement in the Sydney Morning Herald, 12 August 1953, 28.
  • “Fabulous Rudas Dancers feted at Opera House, Ang Tibay,” Manila Times, 5 October 1958, 18; advertisement for the Fabulous Rudas Dancers at the Manila Grand Opera House, Manila Times, 8 October 1958, 15.
  • “Dancers off to Calcutta—but they’ll be back soon,” Straits Times, 6 April 1958, 4.
  • Advertisements in Straits Times, 1 May to 14 June 1958, and China Mail, 25 July to 9 September 1958.
  • Advertisements in China Mail, 29 May to 23 June 1959.
  • “Opening Bill,” Pix, 13 June 1959, 17-19. The Rudas Dancers were Dawn Cabot, Mikey Collier, Robyn Isted, Evelyn Jago, Janice Kingham, Noeleen Race and Yvonne Whiting.
  • Programme for Oriental Cavalcade, Tivoli Theatre, Sydney, 19 October 1959, Performing Arts Collection, The Arts Centre, Melbourne.
  • Colin Kerr, “East and West meet on stage,” The Advertiser, 23 April 1960, 6.
  • Christina Klein, Cold War Orientalism: Asia in the Middlebrow Imagination, 1945-1961 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2003) 14.
  • L. B. [Lindsey Browne], “Oriental accent in Tivoli show,” Sydney Morning Herald, 20 October 1949, 28. There were some cast changes during the tour: Will Mahoney, Johnny Lockwood and Johnny Ladd took the comedian spots in subsequent seasons.
  • Betty Stewart, A Survivor in a Star Spangled World: An Autobiography (East Blaxland: Betty Stewart, 2000), 114. The reviewers in Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide also admired the Kewpie Doll ballet. The Kawashima Dancers were Sachiko Kawaguchi, Chiaki Tanaka, Sumiko Ubara, Yoshiko Sekine, Ki Nin Shin, Eiko Shimuzu, Mitsuko Ezoe and Tokiko Muto; choreographed by Asaku Kawashima.
  • “Spectacle and color in new Tivoli show,” The Age, 19 Aug 1959, 16.
  • Advertisements in Manila Times, 25 October 1958 to 28 May 1959.
  • Advertisments in China Mail, 18 November to 13 December 1958.
  • The Duo Sylvanos were Arthur Smith and Delores Harris. “Round the world—the ritzy way doing the light fantastic,” Straits Times, 6 July 1955, 5; advertisement for Sky Palace, Singapore, Straits Times, 12 January 1957, 10; “China Mail Entertainment Guide,” China Mail, 16 August 1960, 4.
  • Stewart, A Survivor in a Star Spangled World, 109-115.
  • The Bobby Limb Show, Episode 9, National Film and Sound Archive (NFSA), Title No. 12000. The date of first broadcast for this recording is not determined. Bobby Limb introduces Che Chung Chong and Mana Koon: “they have appeared all over Australia with the Oriental Cavalcade, they’ve been back to the Far East [presumably Hong Kong], and now we’ve got them back again” which would place the broadcast either in January or early February or between May and October 1960. Other acts from Oriental Cavalcade performed on television. The Ricman Duo appear on Cafe Continental, unidentified episode, NFSA, Title No. 746820. The Kawashima Dancers are credited in The Bobby Limb Show, Episode 11, c. 1960, NFSA, Title No. 13348, but their segment is cut from the recording. Likewise, the Fabulous Rudas Dancers are credited for The Bobby Limb Show, Episode 13, c. 1960, NFSA, Title No. 11983, but do not appear in the recording. Che Chung Chong also appears with Mei Lei in Mobil Limb Show, Episode 22, c. 1960, NFSA, Title No. 440290.
  • Programmes for Thanks for the Memory, Princess Theatre, Melbourne, 3 October 1953, and Many Happy Returns, Empire Theatre, Sydney, 28 January 1959, Performing Arts Collection, The Arts Centre, Melbourne.
  • “Limehouse Blues,” written in 1922 by Englishmen Douglas Furber and Philip Braham, was first sung by Gertrude Lawrence. The song became a jazz standard in the 1920s and 1930s. It lent its title to a 1934 crime film, set in London’s Chinatown, starring the Chinese-American actor, Anna May Wong. It was also the subject of an Oriental fantasy, danced by Fred Astaire and Lucille Bremer, dressed in ‘Asian’ costumes and make-up, in the 1946 Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer movie, Ziegfeld Follies.

23 thoughts on “Oriental Cavalcade”

  1. I trained at the Rudas School of Stage Dancing in the early 70’s and have such wonderful memories of my time there. I was forced to stop dancing with a leg injury which my teacher wanted me to rest but, Mrs Rudas said I should ‘work it’. I worked it and now have limited movement in the area where the injury occurred. I guess she was wrong.

  2. Dear Maureen – thanks for sharing your memory of training at the Rudas School. Jonathan

  3. I was at the Rudas School of Dance from 1954-58. We performed in the pantomime “Cinderella” at the Elizabethan theatre, Newtown – a great experience at age 13. Wendy Blacklock played Cinderella, and Reg Quartley the Dame. I remember Billy McMahon, red hair and a great tap dancer. I also admired Albert Dawking and Kay Carson? who were the school’s main principals. And a tall statuesque deaf girl. Mrs Rudas was rather severe, but Mr Rudas was very kind and we all loved him. I am still very flexible, and was in a tap-dancing group on the NSW Central Coast in my ’60’s.

  4. Dear Heather, many thanks for sharing your memories of the Rudas School of Dance. It is great to read your impressions of Mr and Mrs Rudas and memories of the pantomime. I am also interested in learning how many students from the school went on to work professionally as performers? I know that Rudas had several troupes of dancing touring overseas in the late 1950s and early 1960s. best wishes, Jonathan

  5. I am pleased to read your revue of tibor rudas and his achievements. I was a very early student of his and apeared in all his wonderful tivoli productions and travelled the orient for him also. I did go on to dance in tivoli and JCW shows and niteclubs in sydney. There is a strong bond between those who worked for rudas and we keep in touch like an extended family to this day. We connect from sydney to gold coadt to perth snd las vegas to name just a few. There are some of us who would be happy to relate our experiences if you would be interested.

  6. Hello Rondell, thank you for your comment, I’m glad you enjoyed the short piece on Tibor Rudas. There’s a lot more of his story to tell! I’d be very interested to learn more about your experience working on the Rudas shows. best wishes, Jonathan

  7. Hi Everyone, My sister Lorraine Bennett danced for Tibor Rudas both in pantomines in Sydney and Broken Hill (Snow White). She performed in the Ladder Routine and was a co-partner with a girl called Ruth and Paul Nagi in a beautiful adagio act called “The Snake Routine”. It was a brilliant act with strobe lighting and wonderful choreography. I remember many a night pulling splinters out of her thighs and legs from sliding across the wooden floors. I think she travelled overseas for a good few years and made some wonderful friends. A reunion was held on the gold coast a few years ago and my sister said she loved every minute of it. Her nick name is “Charlie”. Some may know her. I also danced with the Rudas Organisation but only performed in the pantomime “The Flintstones” held at Her Majesties Theatre”. Made some good friends, Robyn Thackery, Evelyn Rudas etc. My sister and I have such fond memories of our dancing days at Rudas’, clomping up the stairs to where the classes were held and then raising through Central Railway tunnel to catch our train home at night. Best wishes to all Margaret

  8. Hi Margaret my name is RondellMillane one of the first students and professional dancers to come from Rudas studio I started there in end of 1949. Yes we do catch up whenever we can just last week Barbara jago visited from las Vegas . We do have a Facebook dedicated to Rudas dancers if you would like to ask to be joined up.

  9. Hi Rondell, I’d like to join the Rudas dancers’ Facebook page please. You can find me on Facebook as Heather Tarrant at Batemans Bay. (Previously Heather Feast) Thanks!

  10. I too was in Cinderella at the Elizabethan theatre as a young girl….was a wonderful experience for me. My sister margot was the deaf girl as well as pam Steele..they both performed as acrobats. They were great times!

  11. Hi had a very long career with Tibor you will hear good and bad stories about him some are true and some have grown bigger over the years but that said he was ahead of his time in Australian entertainment and gave girls like me a life we could never imagine . We have a strong bond and get together often wherever we are in the world and we are in many countries and all thanks to the Rudas Studi😍😍

  12. Hi Margaret
    Just read your post. Became close friends with Robin Thackery and Evelyn Rudas at Mont Parnes in Athens Greece in 71′ 72. Would love to get in touch with Robyn and Evelyn if possible. Could you please pass on my details.

  13. Hi , I would also love to join the page , I train d at Rudss school of stage dancing from 1973 – 1979 , many concerts and performances in Snow White at Her Majesties and the Canberra Theatre .

  14. I have been searching for years to find people I danced with with Rudas Organisation. I checked online every few years and over time find a little more as dedicated people work hard to capture some wonderful years of dance and entertainment. I was part of Rudas after Mr & Mrs Rudas parted ways and she taught in Sydney. Mrs Rudas and her daughers Evelyn & Marilyn managed the Sydney studio, and they were all amazing. Mrs Rudas was strict but kind and she was completely dedicated to her art and cared about her students. I met and performed with many wonderful people through the company. I joined when I was four and the years with them were the best years. They were at the fore of teaching so many styles, and no-one really competed at the time (70s, 80’s). One of my earlier performances was at The Regent Theatre with the Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs production 1978.

  15. Thanks for your comment, Pamela – it’s great to hear about your involvement with the Rudas studio. I hope you’ll be able to connect with others. Jonathan

  16. I started at the Rudas studio in 1949/50 when the studio opened in the rooftop of the Sydney Tivoli theatre. I continued learning and then working in their shows and later into other shows . I am in contact still with many others of my era and some who were also in the production at the Regent.
    There is a private site called Rudas Dancers where we all keep in contact .
    If you supply me with your email or other I can ask others to contact you
    Rondell Raye ( my working name)

  17. Hi Jonathan,
    My mum was a dancer with the Rudas group and my sister and I have a lot of photos and programs/posters. Mum danced in Las Vegas and at the Lido in Paris – I think she was in the group that left sydney in 1958. Please feel free to contact me if you would like to see any of the above.

  18. Hi Rachelle. Thanks so much for getting in contact. It’s great to learn about your mum’s work with Rudas. I’d love to see the photos and programs you have. I’m particularly interested in the Rudas connections to Las Vegas and Paris. I’ll get in touch. best wishes, Jonathan

  19. Y name is Coral Hudson Foster
    I joined the Rudas school of acrobatic dancing in 1956 and in March 1958 I went overseas with one of his groups we worked for 18 months in the Far East …… India Singapore Bangkok Okinawa Guam Taipei Hong Kong and Japan and when we came back to Sydney we toured Australia with Oriental Cavalcade and then back to Sydney for Ziegfeld Follies
    From there six of us left for New York America where we worked at the Latin quarter on Broadway the Waldorf Astoria and we did 1961 New Year’s Day iEd Sullivan show
    From there we toured South America with the Ringling brothers and Barnum and Bailey circus
    After that tour we went back to New York and then left for Cairo Egypt where we worked in King Farouks Palace and the Auberge de Pyramids
    From there we went to Europe and worked Italy France Portugal Spain Lake Como in Switzerland Monaco Israel Tripoli England and Lebanon
    The group went on to Las Vegas and stayed there for many years with girls from the studio in Australia coming over when they were ready and of age to work in Montreal and the Bahamas the Lido in Paris and Denmark and of course Las Vegas
    We all still keep in touch on a Rudas Dancers site we have on Facebook
    We have had 6 big reunions over the years, all in Sydney except for one on the Gold Coast and 40 to 50 of us all turn up, even some of the girls and Guys that stayed in America and England came to the reunion
    Last September 2019 6 of us went to Las Vegas and we had another big reunion of 40 of us
    We were lucky we did it before Covid took over

  20. Dear Coral, you were lucky to tour at a time when the horizons of travel were extending across the world. And lucky to get together last year before the travel restrictions came into place. I hope you’re keeping well. Thanks again for sharing these memories of your performing career. best wishes, Jonathan

  21. Love these stories about the Rudas trained dancers. I used to attend the Rudas (school of stage dancing) at Railway Square in the early 70s. Climbing those old wooden stairs..the old floorboards..the place was a fire trap! loved the classical lessons under the watchful Mrs Rudas..ciggie in hand. She was an excellent teacher.
    The girls I remember were Vicki King Peta Schneider Rhonda Keeper & Rebecca Cruws. Marilyn Rudas attended my high school in Randwick for a while.
    So many lovely memories.

  22. Hello! My name is Patricia Cruzado, the daughter of Rudas dancer Noeline Diane (Race) and Filipino singer Pedro (Pete) Cruzado. It’s great to see some comments from mum’s dearest dancing friends, who continue to keep in touch. Mum is having lunch with chaperone/manager Dorothy Hall in a couple of weeks in Sydney. The story of the wonderful Rudas dancers has fascinated me especially since my mum’s 80th birthday last year. After testing positive with Covid in a few weeks ago I was inspired to write a bunch of original songs (12) and hope to share them one day; perhaps in a play. These dancing girls were world class and they danced during a golden era of stage shows and entertainment that should be remembered. They were too good to participate in the Olympics. If anyone is interested Mum is at the same address or you can email me. Kind regards Patricia 🙂

  23. To Rachelle Krilich
    Was your mother‘s name Colleen Richardson before she got married?
    If so, she was the third group that went out to the east, and the show was called The Suga Baba Review
    It consisted of
    Bernie Kane (dec)
    Marilyn Trembath
    Beverley Collins, Brown
    Judy Wilson
    Colleen, Vial Jacobsen
    Loretta Wakefield, Zarvian
    Colleen Bobbie Colier
    I was a Rudas dancer also and I was in the second second group that went to the east with Michael and Jane, Kay and Albert and Cathy Taylor and in the first group that went to America, 1960

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